South Africa is said to be the 30th driest country in the world, with 98% of water resources being allocated for, and lower than average rainfall together with increasing demand placed on the country during a major water crisis. (USB et al.)

The determination of water demand is of utmost importance when it comes to designing a proper water project. A meticulously estimated water demand metric helps to determine the quantities of water and duration of water use to generate various demand patterns. The demand arises mainly for residential, institutional, industrial, and public uses. The Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) (2017) predicted that by 2030 water demand will reach 17.7 billion m3, far more than what is available now.

Types of Water Demands:

1. Domestic Water Demand

2. Industrial Water Demand

3. Institutional and Commercial Water Demand

4. Demand for Public

5. Fire Demand

6. Waste and Theft

On average South Africa consumes 237 liters/person/day (l/c/d) (Ngobeni & Breitenbach, 2021). The industrial sector water estimates in South Africa excluding wastewater output, can be broken down into 2% food production, 20% power generation, 23% mining and 55% industry.

Demand for the Public is the quantity of water required for public utility purposes like washing and sprinkling of roads cleaning of sewers, watering of public parks, gardens, public fountains etc. Fire demand is the water consumption required for fire fighting purposes in case a fire breaks out in an area. Many urban centers are losing an estimated 50% or more of their existing water supplies due to leaks or non-payment.

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